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BIST - Built-in-self-Test

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BIST generates its own stimulus and analyzes its own response.  BIST is used normally to validate a product in labs, there are different kind of BIST used in system to validate.
one of the method is , using LFSR, LFSR generates random stimulus and it is expected that chip is in its normal functional mode. with the configuration, with LFSR ,  one can validate the data path in system or in IP.

What is the motivation for BIST ? 
-> cost-efficient testing
-> stuck-at-fault model
-> cost of ATE (Automatic Test Equipment)

Types of BIST  

-> on-line BIST 
->  Concurrent on-line BIST 
Occurs simultaneously with normal functional operation , normally coding techniques or duplication and comparison are used.

 ->   Non-concurrent on-line BIST 
Carried out while in idle state , by executing software or firmware routines .

-> off-line BIST
System is not in its normal functional mode.

-> Functional off-line BIST 
It is based on a functional description of the circuit under test and uses functional high level fault models.

-> Structural off-line BIST 
Execution based on the structure of the circuit under test and used structural fault models.
Example -  Stuck-At-Fault  (SAF)  - cell stuck at constant value
                  Transition Fault  (TF)    - a cell which fails to go from 0->1 or 1->0  transition
                  Coupling Fault (CF)     - write operation to one cell changes the contents of a second cell

General Architecture of BIST 

Below is typical architecture of BIST testing , bist generator and bist collector would be inside DUT or outside DUT , depends on the BIST type.

LFSR Based Testing  : 

LFSR :  Linear Feedback Shift Register , hardware that generates psedo-random pattern for CUT (circuit under test)

BILBO : Built-In logic block observer , extra hardware need to convert flip-flop into scan chain in test mode.
Exhaustive Testing  : Apply all possible 2 (power of) n pattern to a circuit with n inputs , this will take more ATE time.

Pseudo-exhaustive testing:  Break circuit into small , overlapping blocks and test it.

Psudo Random test generation :

PRBS is basically a polynomial having a standard definition,  for exam - PRBS7, PRBS8, PRBS10, PRBS 31 ..

higher the number of PRBS, pattern will be more random and possibilities to hit a expected pattern in pattern generation will increased.

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Lần cập nhật cuối ( Thứ năm, 07 Tháng 10 2021 13:52 )